Liver detoxification is performed in two stages.
Stage I is stimulated by B vitamins, folic acid, Glutathione, milk thistle, carotenoids, vitamin C, antioxidants, etc. It consists of chemical modification of molecules by enzymes, including oxidation, reduction, methylation, or deamination reactions. The enzymes responsible can undergo induction, meaning their presence can increase due to some substances, or can be held back by others.
Stage II ultimately deactivates toxic substances and leads to their elimination along with bile, or with urine through kidneys. This is performed in combination with various amino acids, including: glutamine, glycine, taurine, or cysteine. If the nutrients for synthesizing enzymes of this phase are insufficient, or the balance is upset by bacteria, it creates a so-called bottleneck, when there is more and more toxins in the blood, because the liver cannot process them.
The phenomenon called enterohepatic circulation occurs when there is an excess growth of bacteria, or existence of intestinal pathogens. Some of the toxicological consequences can be severe. It not only disrupts correct secretion (the previously-secreted substances undergo reabsorption), but it also allows for further metabolism of these substances, their breakdown into other compounds (often even more toxic than the initial ones) due to them passing the liver multiple times and the poisoning effect of pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Enterohepatic circulation, or multiple passage of toxins, completely disrupts the body’s natural detoxification mechanism.
This is why, when we ask why the bodies of autistic children accumulate toxins from the environment, while healthy adults’ bodies do not, the answers can include: bacterial translocations, liver dysfunctions, or the resulting toxin recycling in child’s body.
Dr Cubała writes about liver detoxification on her BLOG too.